俄罗斯联邦宪法
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      { Adopted by referendum on: 12 Dec 1993 }
      { ICL Document Status: 12 Dec 1993 }
      { Long Title: Constitution of the Russian Federation }
        { Editor's Note:
        Minor textual changes to Article 65 have been added by order of the
        President of 9 Jan 1996. }
      [Preamble]
      We, the multinational people of the Russian Federation, united by a common
      destiny on our land,
      asserting human rights and liberties, civil peace and accord,
      preserving the historic unity of the state,
      proceeding from the commonly recognized principles of equality and
      self-determination of the peoples,
      honoring the memory of our ancestors, who have passed on to us love of and
      respect for our homeland and faith in good and justice,
      reviving the sovereign statehood of Russia and asserting its immutable
      democratic foundations,
      striving to secure the well-being and prosperity of Russia and proceeding
      from a sense of responsibility for our homeland before the present and
      future generations, and
      being aware of ourselves as part of the world community,
      hereby approve the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
      [Part I] First Part

      Chapter 1 Fundamentals of the Constitutional System

      Article 1 [Russian Federation]
      The Russian Federation -- Russia is a democratic federal rule-of-law state
      with the republican form of government. The names "Russian Federation" and
      "Russia" are equivalent.
      Article 2 [Protection of Human Rights]
      Humans, their rights and freedoms are the supreme value. It is a duty of
      the state to recognize, respect and protect the rights and liberties of
      humans and citizens.
      Article 3 [The Multinational People]

      (1) The multinational people of the Russian Federation is the vehicle of
      sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation.
      (2) The people of the Russian Federation exercise their power directly,
      and also through organs of state power and local self-government.
      (3) The referendum and free elections are the supreme direct manifestation
      of the power of the people.
      (4) No one may arrogate to oneself power in the Russian Federation.
      Seizure of power or appropriation of power authorization are prosecuted
      under federal law.
      Article 4 [Sovereignty]

      (1) The sovereignty of the Russian Federation applies to its entire
      territory.
      (2) The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws have
      supremacy throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
      (3) The Russian Federation ensures the integrity and inviolability of its
      territory.
      Article 5 [Federal Structure]

      (1) The Russian Federation consists of republics, territories,
      regions, federal cities, an autonomous region and autonomous areas, which
      are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.
      (2) The republic (state) has its own constitution and legislation. A
      territory, region, federal city, autonomous region and autonomous area has
      its own charter and legislation
      (3) The federated structure of the Russian Federation are based on its
      state integrity, the uniform system of state power, delimitation of scopes
      of authority and powers between the bodies of state power of the Russian
      Federation and the bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian
      Federation, equality and self-determination of the peoples in the Russian
      Federation.
      (4) All the subjects of the Russian Federation are equal among themselves
      in relations with the Federal bodies of state power.
      Article 6 [Citizenship]

      (1) Citizenship of the Russian Federation are acquired and terminated in
      accordance with the Federal law, and are one and equal irrespective of the
      grounds on which it has been acquired.
      (2) Every citizen of the Russian Federation has all the rights and
      liberties on its territory and bear equal duties, stipulated by the
      Constitution.
      (3) A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be stripped of citizenship
      or of the right to change it.
      Article 7 [State Principles]

      (1) The Russian Federation is a social state, whose policies are aimed at
      creating conditions which ensure a dignified life and free development of
      man.
      (2) The Russian Federation protects the work and health of its people,
      establish a guaranteed minimum wage, provide state support for family,
      motherhood, fatherhood and childhood, and also for the disabled and for
      elderly citizens, develop a system of social services and establish
      government pensions, benefits and other social security guarantees.
      Article 8 [Economic Guarantees]

      (1) Unity of economic space, free movement of goods, services and
      financial resources, support for competition and freedom of any economic
      activity is guaranteed in the Russian Federation.
      (2) Private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership are recognized
      and enjoy equal protection in the Russian Federation.
      Article 9 [Natural Resources]

      (1) The land and other natural resources are used and protected in the
      Russian Federation as the basis of the life and activity of the peoples
      living on their respective territories.
      (2) The land and other natural resources may be in private, state
      municipal and other forms of ownership.
      Article 10 [Separations of Powers]
      State power in the Russian Federation is exercised on the basis of the
      separation of the legislative, executive and judiciary branches. The
      bodies of legislative, executive and judiciary powers are independent.
      Article 11 [State Powers]

      (1) State power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the President of
      the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (Council of the Federation
      and House of Representatives [State Duma]), the government of the Russian
      Federation and courts of the Russian Federation.
      (2) State power in the subjects of the Russian Federation is exercised by
      the organs of state authority formed by them.
      (3) The scopes of authority and powers of the bodies of state authority of
      the Russian Federation and the bodies of state authority of the subjects
      of the Russian Federation are delimited under this Constitution, Federal
      and other Treaties on the delimitation of scopes of authority and powers.
      Article 12 [Local Self-Government]
      Local self-government is recognized and guaranteed in the Russian
      Federation. Local self-government operates independently within the bounds
      of its authority. The bodies of local self-government are not part of the
      state power bodies.
      Article 13 [Political Plurality]

      (1) Ideological plurality is recognized in the Russian Federation.
      (2) No ideology may be instituted as a state-sponsored or mandatory
      ideology.
      (3) Political plurality and the multi-party system are recognized in the
      Russian Federation.
      (4) Public associations are equal before the law.
      (5) The establishment and the activities of public associations, whose
      aims and actions are directed at forcible alteration of the fundamentals
      of constitutional governance and violation of the integrity of the Russian
      Federation and undermining of the security of the state, the forming of
      armed units, the incitement of social, racial, national and religious
      strife are prohibited.
      Article 14 [Secularity of the State]

      (1) The Russian Federation is a secular state. No religion may be
      instituted as state-sponsored or mandatory religion.
      (2) Religious associations are separated from the state, and are equal
      before the law.
      Article 15 [Supreme Law]

      (1) The Constitution has supreme legal force and direct effect, and is
      applicable throughout the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws
      and other legal acts adopted by the Russian Federation may not contravene
      the Constitution.
      (2) Organs of state power and local self-government, officials, citizens
      and their associations must comply with the laws and the Constitution.
      (3) The laws are officially published. Unpublished laws are not
      applicable. No regulatory legal act affecting the rights, liberties or
      duties of the human being and citizen may apply unless it has been
      published officially for general knowledge.
      (4) The commonly recognized principles and norms of the international law
      and the international treaties of the Russian Federation are a component
      part of its legal system. If an international treaty of the Russian
      Federation stipulates other rules than those stipulated by the law, the
      rules of the international treaty apply.
      Article 16 [Constitutional System]

      (1) The provisions of the present Chapter of the Constitution are the
      foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and may
      not be changed except as provided for in this Constitution.
      (2) No other provisions of this Constitution may contravene the
      foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation.
      Chapter 2 Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen

      Article 17 [Basic Rights and Liberties]

      (1) The basic rights and liberties in conformity with the commonly
      recognized principles and norms of the international law are recognized
      and guaranteed in the Russian Federation and under this Constitution.
      (2) The basic rights and liberties of the human being are inalienable and
      belong to everyone from birth.
      (3) The exercise of rights and liberties of a human being and citizen may
      not violate the rights and liberties of other persons.
      Article 18 [Direct Effect]
      The rights and liberties of man and citizen have direct effect. They
      determine the meaning, content and application of the laws, and the
      activities of the legislative and executive branches
      and local self-government, and are secured by the judiciary.
      Article 19 [Equality]

      (1) All people are equal before the law and in the court of law.
      (2) The state guarantees the equality of rights and liberties regardless
      of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, property or employment
      status, residence, attitude to religion, convictions, membership of public
      associations or any other circumstance. Any restrictions of the rights of
      citizens on social, racial, national, linguistic or religious grounds are
      forbidden.
      (3) Man and woman have equal rights and liberties and equal opportunities
      for their pursuit.
      Article 20 [Life, Capital Punishment]

      (1) Everyone has the right to life.
      (2) Capital punishment may, until its abolition, be instituted by the
      federal law as exceptional punishment for especially grave crimes against
      life, with the accused having the right to have his case considered in a
      law court by jury.
      Article 21 [Human Dignity]

      (1) The dignity of the person is protected by the state. No circumstance
      may be used as a pretext for belittling it.
      (2) No one may be subjected to torture, violence or any other harsh or
      humiliating treatment or punishment. No one may be subjected to medical,
      scientific or other experiments without his or her free consent.
      Article 22 [Personal Freedom]

      (1) Everyone has the right to freedom and personal inviolability.
      (2) Arrest, detention and keeping in custody are allowed only by an order
      of a court of law. No person may be detained for more than 48 hours
      without an order of a court of law.
      Article 23 [Privacy]

      (1) Everyone has the right to privacy, to personal and family secrets, and
      to protection of one's honor and good name.
      (2) Everyone has the right to privacy of correspondence, telephone
      communications, mail, cables and other communications. Any restriction of
      this right is allowed only under an order of a court of law.
      Article 24 [Data Protection]

      (1) It is forbidden to gather, store, use and disseminate information on
      the private life of any person without his/her consent.
      (2) The bodies of state authority and the bodies of local self-government
      and the officials thereof provide to each citizen access to any documents
      and materials directly affecting his/her rights and liberties unless
      otherwise stipulated under the law.
      Article 25 [Home]
      The home is inviolable. No one has the right to enter the home against the
      will of persons residing in it except in cases stipulated by the federal
      law or under an order of a court of law.
      Article 26 [National Identity, Native Language]

      (1) Everyone has the right to determine and state his national identity.
      No one can be forced to determine and state his national identity.
      (2) Everyone has the right to use his native language, freely choose the
      language of communication, education, training and creative work.
      Article 27 [Residence]

      (1) Everyone who is lawfully staying on the territory of the
      Russian Federation has the right to freedom of movement and to choose the
      place to stay and reside.
      (2) Everyone is free to leave the boundaries of the Russian Federation.
      The citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to freely return
      into the Russian Federation.
      Article 28 [Belief, Religion]
      Everyone is guaranteed the right to freedom of conscience, to freedom of
      religious worship, including the right to profess, individually or jointly
      with others, any religion, or to profess no religion, to freely choose,
      possess and disseminate religious or other beliefs, and to act in
      conformity with them.
      Article 29 [Expression]

      (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and speech.
      (2) Propaganda or campaigning inciting social, racial, national or
      religious hatred and strife is impermissible. The propaganda of social,
      racial, national, religious or language superiority is forbidden.
      (3) No one may be coerced into expressing one's views and convictions or
      into renouncing them.
      (4) Everyone has the right to seek, get, transfer, produce and disseminate
      information by any lawful means. The list of information constituting the
      state secret is established by the federal law. 5. The freedom of the mass
      media is guaranteed. Censorship is prohibited.
      Article 30 [Association]

      (1) Everyone has the right to association, including the right to create
      trade unions in order to protect one's interests. The freedom of public
      associations activities is guaranteed.
      (2) No one may be coerced into joining any association or into membership
      thereof.
      Article 31 [Assembly, Demonstration]
      Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to gather peacefully,
      without weapons, and to hold meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches
      and pickets.
      Article 32 [Participation]

      (1) Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to participate in
      the administration of the affairs of the state both directly and through
      their representatives.
      (2) Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to elect and to be
      elected to bodies of state governance and to organs of local
      self-government, as well as take part in a referendum.
      (3) Citizens who have been found by a court of law to be under special
      disability, and also citizens placed in detention under a court verdict,
      do not have the right to elect or to be elected.
      (4) Citizens of the Russian Federation have equal access to state service.
      (5) Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to participate in
      administering justice.
      Article 33 [Petitions]
      Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to turn personally to,
      and send individual and collective petitions to state bodies and bodies of
      local self-government.
      Article 34 [Property Rights]

      (1) Everyone has the right to freely use his or her abilities and property
      for entrepreneurial or any other economic activity not prohibited by the
      law.
      (2) No economic activity aimed at monopolization or unfair competition are
      allowed.
      Article 35 [Private Property]

      (1) The right of private property is protected by law.
      (2) Everyone has the right to have property in his or her ownership, to
      possess, use and manage it either individually or
      jointly with other persons.
      (3) No one may be arbitrarily deprived of his or her property unless on
      the basis of decision by a court of law. Property can be forcibly
      alienated for state needs only on condition of a preliminary and equal
      compensation.
      (4) The right of inheritance is guaranteed.
      Article 36 [Land Ownership]

      (1) Citizens and their associations have the right to have land in their
      private ownership.
      (2) The possession, use and management of the land and other natural
      resources are freely exercised by their owners provided this does not
      cause damage to the environment or infringe upon the rights and interests
      of other persons.
      (3) The terms and procedures for the use of land are determined on the
      basis of federal laws.
      Article 37 [Work]

      (1) Work is free. Everyone has the right to make free use of his or her
      abilities for work and to choose a type of activity and occupation.
      (2) Forced labor is prohibited.
      (3) Everyone has the right to work under conditions meeting the
      requirements of safety and hygiene, to remuneration for work without any
      discrimination whatsoever and not below the statutory minimum wage, and
      also the right to security against unemployment.
      (4) The right to individual and collective labor disputes with the use of
      means of resolution thereof established by federal law, including the
      right to strike, is recognized.
      (5) Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. A person having a work
      contract is guaranteed the statutory duration of the work time, days off
      and holidays, and paid annual vacation.
      Article 38 [Children, Family]

      (1) Motherhood and childhood, and the family are under state protection.
      (2) Care for children and their upbringing are the equal right and duty of
      the parents.
      (3) Employable children who have reached 18 years of age must take care of
      their non-employable parents.
      Article 39 [Social Security]

      (1) Everyone is guaranteed social security in old age, in case of disease,
      invalidity, loss of breadwinner,to bring up children and in other cases
      established by law.
      (2) State pensions and social benefits are established by laws.
      (3) Voluntary social insurance, development of additional forms of social
      security and charity are encouraged.
      Article 40 [Housing]

      (1) Everyone has the right to a home. No one may be arbitrarily deprived
      of a home.
      (2) State bodies and organs of local self-government encourage home
      construction and create conditions for the realization of the right to a
      home.
      (3) Low-income citizens and other citizens, defined by the law, who are in
      need of housing are housed free of charge or for affordable pay from
      government, municipal and other housing funds in conformity with the norms
      stipulated by the law.
      Article 41 [Health Care]

      (1) Everyone has the right to health care and medical assistance. Medical
      assistance is made available by state and municipal health care
      institutions to citizens free of charge, with the money from the relevant
      budget, insurance payments another revenues.
      (2) The Russian Federation finances federal health care and
      health-building programs, take measures to develop state, municipal and
      private health care systems, encourage activities
      contributing to the strengthening of the man's health, to the development
      of physical culture and sport, and to ecological, sanitary and
      epidemiologic welfare.
      (3) Concealment by officials of facts and circumstances posing hazards to
      human life and health result in their liability in conformance with
      federal law.
      Article 42 [Environment]
      Everyone has the right to a favorable environment, reliable information
      about its condition and to compensation for the damage caused to his or
      her health or property by ecological violations.
      Article 43 [Education]

      (1) Everyone has the right to education.
      (2) The accessibility and gratuity of pre-school, general secondary and
      vocational secondary education in public and municipal educational
      institutions and enterprises are guaranteed.
      (3) Everyone has the right to receive, free of charge and on a competitive
      basis, higher education in a state or municipal educational institution or
      enterprise.
      (4) Basic general education is mandatory. Parents or persons substituting
      for them must provide for their children to receive basic general
      education.
      (5) The Russian Federation institutes federal state educational standards
      and support various forms of education and self-education.
      Article 44 [Arts, Sciences, Culture]

      (1) Everyone is guaranteed freedom of literary, artistic, scientific,
      intellectual and other types of creative activity and tuition.
      Intellectual property is protected by the law.
      (2) Everyone has the right to participation in cultural life, to the use
      of institutions of culture, and access to cultural values.
      (3) Everyone has the responsibility to care for the preservation of the
      historic and cultural heritage and safeguard landmarks of history and
      culture.
      Article 45 [State Protection]

      (1) State protection for human rights and liberties in the Russian
      Federation is guaranteed.
      (2) Everyone has the right to defend his or her rights and liberties by
      any means not prohibited by the law.
      Article 46 [Legal Protection]

      (1) Everyone is guaranteed protection of his or her rights and liberties
      in a court of law.
      (2) The decisions and actions (or inaction) of state organs, organs of
      local self-government, public associations and officials may be appealed
      against in a court of law.
      (3) In conformity with the international treaties of the Russian
      Federation, everyone has the right to turn to interstate organs concerned
      with the protection of human rights and liberties when all the means of
      legal protection available within the state have been exhausted.
      Article 47 [Access to the Courts]

      (1) No one may be denied the right to having his or her case reviewed by
      the court and the judge under whose jurisdiction the given case falls
      under the law.
      (2) Anyone charged with a crime has the right to have his or her case
      reviewed by a court of law with the participation of jurors in cases
      stipulated by the federal law.
      Article 48 [Counsel]

      (1) Everyone is guaranteed the right to qualified legal counsel. Legal
      counsel is provided free of charge in cases stipulated by the law.
      (2) Every person who has been detained, taken into custody or
      charged with a crime has the right to legal counsel (defense attorney)
      from the moment of, respectively, detention or indictment.
      Article 49 [Innocence]

      (1) Everyone charged with a crime is considered not guilty until his or
      her guilt has been proven in conformity with the procedures stipulated by
      the federal law and established by the verdict of a court of law.
      (2) The defendant ist not obliged to prove his or her innocence.
      (3) The benefit of doubt is interpreted in favor of the defendant.
      Article 50 [Ne Bis In Idem]

      (1) No one may be repeatedly convicted for the same offense.
      (2) In the administration of justice no evidence obtained in violation of
      the federal law is allowed.
      (3) Everyone sentenced for a crime has the right to have the sentence
      reviewed by a higher court according to the procedure instituted by the
      federal law, and also the right to plea for clemency or mitigation
      punishment.
      Article 51 [Right to Remain Silent]

      (1) No one is obliged to give evidence against himself or herself, for his
      or her spouse and close relatives, the range of which are established by
      the federal law.
      (2) The federal law may stipulate other exemptions from the obligation to
      give evidence.
      Article 52 [Victims]
      The rights of persons who have sustained harm from crimes and abuses of
      power is protected by the law. The state guarantees the victims access to
      justice and compensation for damage.
      Article 53 [Compensation]
      Everyone has the right to compensation by the state for the damage caused
      by unlawful actions (or inaction) of state organs, or their officials.
      Article 54 [Retroactive Laws]

      (1) The law instituting or aggravating the liability of a person has no
      retroactive force.
      (2) No one may be held liable for an action which was not recognized as an
      offense at the time of its commitment. If liability for an offense has
      been lifted or mitigated after its perpetration, the new law applies.
      Article 55 [Limits on Restrictions]

      (1) The listing of the basic rights and liberties in the Constitution may
      not be interpreted as the denial or belittlement of the other commonly
      recognized human and citizens' rights and liberties.
      (2) No laws denying or belittling human and civil rights and liberties may
      be issued in the Russian Federation.
      (3) Human and civil rights and liberties may be restricted by the federal
      law only to the extent required for the protection of the fundamentals of
      the constitutional system, morality, health, rights and lawful interests
      of other persons, for ensuring the defense of the country and the security
      of the state.
      Article 56 [Restrictions]
      Individual Restrictions of rights and liberties with identification of the
      extent and of their duration may be instituted in conformity with the
      federal constitutional law under conditions of the state of emergency in
      order to ensure the safety of citizens and protection of the
      constitutional system.
      (2) A state of emergency throughout the territory of the Russian
      Federation and in individual areas thereof may be introduced in the
      circumstances and in conformity with the procedures defined by the federal
      constitutional law.
      (3) The rights and liberties stipulated by Articles 20, 21, 23 (1), 24,
      28, 34 (1), 40 (1), 46-54 of the Constitution are not subject to
      restriction.
      Article 57 [Duty to Pay Taxes]
      Everyone is obliged to pay lawful taxes and fees. Laws introducing new
      taxes or worsening the situation of tax payers may not have retroactive
      force.
      Article 58 [Duty to Protect the Environment]
      Everyone is obliged to preserve nature and the environment, and care for
      natural wealth.
      Article 59 [Military Service]

      (1) Defense of the homeland is a duty and obligation of the citizen of the
      Russian Federation.
      (2) The citizen of the Russian Federation do military service in
      conformity with the federal law.
      (3) The citizen of the Russian Federation whose convictions and faith are
      at odds with military service, and also in other cases stipulated by the
      federal law has the right to the substitution of an alternative civil
      service for military service.
      Article 60 [Legal Age]
      The citizen of the Russian Federation is recognized to be of legal age and
      may independently exercise his rights and duties in full upon reaching the
      age of 18.
      Article 61 [Extradition]

      (1) The citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deported out of
      Russia or extradited to another state.
      (2) The Russian Federation guarantees its citizens defense and patronage
      beyond its boundaries.
      Article 62 [Dual Citizenship]

      (1) The citizen of the Russian Federation may have the citizenship of a
      foreign state (dual citizenship) in conformity with the federal law or
      international treaty of the Russian Federation.
      (2) Possession of the citizenship of a foreign state by the citizen of the
      Russian Federation does not belittle his or her ranks and liberties or
      exempt him or her from the duties stemming from Russian citizenship unless
      otherwise stipulated by the federal law or international treaty of the
      Russian Federation.
      (3) Foreign citizens and stateless persons enjoy in the Russian Federation
      the rights of its citizens and bear their duties with the exception of
      cases stipulated by the federal law or international treaty of the Russian
      Federation.
      Article 63 [Asylum]

      (1) The Russian Federation grants political asylum to foreign citizens and
      stateless citizens in conformity with the commonly recognized norms of the
      international law.
      (2) The extradition of persons persecuted for their political views or any
      actions (or inaction), which are not qualified as criminal by the law of
      the Russian Federation, to other states is not allowed in the Russian
      Federation. The extradition of persons charged with crimes and also the
      hand-over of convicts for serving time in other countries is effected on
      the basis of the federal law or international treaty of the Russian
      Federation.
      Article 64 [Change by Amendment]
      The provisions of these articles form the basis of personal rights in the
      Russian Federation and may not be changed other than by the means set
      forth in this constitution.
      Chapter 3 Russian Federation

      Article 65 [Republics]

      (1) The Russian Federation consists of the subjects of the Federation:
      Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), Republic of Altai,
      Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Dagestan,
      Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Republic of Kalmykia --
      Khalmg Tangch, Karachayevo-Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia,
      Republic of Komi, Republic of Mari El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of
      Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Tatarstan
      (Tatarstan), Republic of Tuva, Udmurt Republic, Republic of Khakasia,
      Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic -- Chavash Republics; Altai Territory,
      Krasnodar Territory, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Maritime Territory, Stavropol
      Territory, Khabarovsk Territory; Amur Region, Arkhangelsk Region,
      Astrakhan Region, Belgorod Region, Bryansk Region, Vladimir Region,
      Volgograd Region, Vologda Region, Voronezh Region, Ivanovo Region, Irkutsk
      Region, Kaliningrad Region, Kaluga Region, Kamchatka Region, Kemerovo
      Region, Kirov Region, Kostroma Region, Kurgan Region, Kursk Region,
      Leningrad Region, Lipetsk Region, Magadan Region, Moscow Region, Murmansk
      Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Novgorod Region, Novosibirsk Region, Omsk
      Region, Orenburg Region, Oryol Region, Penza Region, Perm Region, Pskov
      Region, Rostov Region, Ryazan Region, Samara Region, Saratov Region,
      Sakhalin Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Smolensk Region, Tambov Region, Tver
      Region, Tomsk Region, Tula Relation, Tyumen Region, Ulyanovsk Region,
      Chelyabinsk Region, Chita Region, Yaroslavl Region; Moscow, St. Petersburg
      -- federal cities; Jewish Autonomous Region; Aginsky Buryat Autonomous
      Area, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Area, Koryak Autonomous Area, Nenets
      Autonomous Area, Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Area, Ust-Ordynsky
      Buryat Autonomous Area, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, Chukchi Autonomous
      Area, Evenk Autonomous Area, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area.
      (2) Accession to the Russian Federation and formation of a new subject of
      the Russian Federation within it is carried out as envisaged by the
      federal constitutional law.
      Article 66 [Territories, Regions]

      (1) The status of a republic is defined by the Constitution and the
      constitution of the republic in question.
      (2) The status of a territory, region, federal city, and autonomous region
      and autonomous area is determined by Constitution and the Charter of the
      territory, region, city of federal importance, autonomous region,
      autonomous area, adopted by the legislative (representative) body of the
      relevant subject of the Russian Federation.
      (3) A federal law on autonomous region, autonomous area may be adopted at
      the nomination from the legislative and executive bodies of an autonomous
      region, autonomous area.
      (4) Relations between autonomous areas within a territory or region may be
      regulated by the federal law and an agreement between bodies of state
      power of the autonomous area and, respectively, bodies of state power of
      the territory or the region.
      (5) The status of a subject of the Russian Federation may be changed only
      with mutual consent of the Russian Federation and the subject of the
      Russian Federation in accordance with the federal constitutional law.
      Article 67 [Territory]

      (1) The territory of the Russian Federation incorporates the territories
      of its subjects, the internal and territorial seas and the air space over
      them.
      (2) The Russian Federation has sovereign rights and exercise jurisdiction
      on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Russian
      Federation under the procedure stipulated by the federal law and norms of
      international law.
      (3) The boundaries between the subjects of the Russian Federation may be
      changed by their mutual agreement.
      Article 68 [State Language]

      (1) The state language of the Russian Federation throughout its territory
      is the Russian language.
      (2) The republics have the right to institute their own state languages.
      They are used alongside the state language of the Russian Federation in
      bodies of state power, bodies of local self-government and state
      institutions of the republics.
      (3) The Russian Federation guarantees all its peoples the right to
      preserve their native language and to create the conditions for its study
      and development.
      Article 69 [Indigenous Rights]
      The Russian Federation guarantees the rights of small indigenous peoples
      in accordance with the generally accepted principles and standards of
      international law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.
      Article 70 [Flag, Emblem, Anthem]

      (1) The national flag, State Emblem, and the national anthem, their
      description and the procedure for their official use are established by
      the federal constitutional law.
      (2) The capital of the Russian Federation is the city of Moscow. The
      status of the capital is established by the federal law.
      Article 71 [Federal Jurisdiction]
      The jurisdiction of the Russian Federation includes:
      a) the adoption and amendment of the Constitution and federal laws and
      supervision over compliance with them;
      b) the federal structure and territory of the Russian Federation;
      c) regulation and protection of the rights and liberties of the human
      being and citizen; citizenship of the Russian Federation; regulation and
      protection of the rights of national minorities;
      d) establishment of the system of federal bodies of legislative, executive
      and judiciary power, procedure for the organization and activities
      thereof; formation of federal bodies of state power;
      e) federal and state property and management thereof;
      f) determining the basic principles of federal policy and federal programs
      in the field of state structure, the economy, the environment, and the
      social, cultural and national development of the Russian Federation;
      g) establishment of the legal framework for a single market; financial,
      monetary, credit and customs regulation, emission of money and guidelines
      for price policy; federal economic services, including federal banks;
      h) the federal budget; federal taxes and levies; federal funds of regional
      development;
      i) federal power grids, nuclear energy, fissionable materials; federal
      transport, railways, information and communications; space activities;
      j) foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation,
      international treaties of the Russian questions of war and peace;
      k) foreign trade relations of the Russian Federation;
      l) defense and security; defense production; determining procedures for
      the sale and purchase of arms, ammunition, military hardware and other
      equipment; production of fissionable materials, toxic substances,
      narcotics and procedure for the use thereof;
      m) defining the status and protection of the state border, territorial
      waters, the air space, the exclusive economic zone and the continental
      shelf of the Russian Federation;
      n) law courts; Prosecutor's Office; criminal, criminal-procedural and
      criminal-executive legislation; amnesty and pardon; civil,
      civil-procedural and arbitration-procedural legislation; legal regulation
      of intellectual property;
      o) federal conflict of laws;
      p) meteorological service; standards, models, the metric system and time
      measurement; geodesy and cartography; names of geographical objects;
      official statistics and accounting;
      q) state decorations and honorary titles of the Russian
      Federation;
      r) federal state service.
      Article 72 [Joint Jurisdiction]

      (1) The joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of
      the Russian Federation includes:
      a) ensuring compliance of the constitutions and laws of the republics,
      charters, laws, and other regulatory legal acts of the territories,
      regions, federal cities, the autonomous region and autonomous areas with
      the Constitution and the federal laws;
      b) protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, protection of
      the rights of ethnic minorities; ensuring legality, law and order, and
      public safety; border zone regime;
      c) issues of the possession, use and management of the land, mineral
      resources, water an d other natural resources;
      d) delimitation of state property;
      e) management of natural resources, protection of the environment and
      ecological safety; specially protected natural reserves; protection of
      historical and cultural monuments;
      f) general questions of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical
      culture and sports;
      g) coordination of health issues, protection of family, motherhood,
      fatherhood and childhood; social protection including social security;
      h) implementing measures to combat catastrophes, natural disasters,
      epidemics and eliminating consequences thereof;
      i) establishment of the general guidelines for taxation and levies in the
      Russian Federation;
      j) administrative, administrative-procedural, labor, family, housing,
      land, water and forestry legislation; legislation on the sub-surface and
      environmental protection;
      k) cadres of judiciary and law-enforcement agencies; the bar, notaries;
      l) protection of the original environment and traditional way of life of
      small ethnic communities;
      m) establishment of general guidelines of the organization of the system
      of bodies of state power and local self-government;
      n) coordination of the international and external economic relations of
      the subjects of the Russian Federation, compliance with the international
      treaties of the Russian Federation.
      (2) The provisions of this Article equally apply to the republics,
      territories, regions, federal cities, the autonomous region and autonomous
      areas.
      Article 73 [Regional Jurisdiction]
      Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of
      the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the
      Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation, the
      subjects of the Russian Federation exercises the entire spectrum of state
      power.
      Article 74 [Free Trade Zone]

      (1) No customs frontiers, duties, levies, or any other barriers for free
      movement of goods, services, or financial means may be established on the
      territory of the Russian Federation.
      (2) Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be established
      under the federal law, if this is necessary for the protection of the
      people's safety, their lives and health, protection of environment and
      cultural values.
      Article 75 [Money]

      (1) The monetary unit of the Russian Federation is the ruble. The monetary
      emission is the exclusive responsibility of the Central Bank of the
      Russian Federation. No other currencies may be issued in the Russian
      Federation.
      (2) The protection and stability of the ruble is the main function of the
      Central Bank of the Russian Federation which it exercises independently
      from other bodies of state power.
      (3) The system of taxes levied to the federal budget and the general
      principles of taxation and levies in the Russian
      Federation is established by the federal law.
      (4) State loans are issued in accordance with the procedure established by
      the federal law and placed on a strictly voluntary basis.
      Article 76 [Direct Effect of Federal Laws]

      (1) On issues within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation federal
      constitutional laws and federal laws are adopted having direct effect
      throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
      (2) On matters within the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and
      the subjects of the Russian Federation federal laws are issued and in
      accordance with them laws and other regulatory legal acts of the subjects
      of the Russian Federation is adopted.
      (3) Federal laws may not contravene federal constitutional laws.
      (4) Outside of the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the joint
      jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian
      Federation republics, territories, regions, federal cities, autonomous
      regions and autonomous areas effect their own legal regulation, including
      the adoption of laws and other regulatory legal acts.
      (5) Laws and other regulatory legal acts of the subjects of the Russian
      Federation may not contravene federal laws adopted in accordance with
      Parts (1) and (2) of this Article. In the event of a contradiction between
      a federal law and any other act issued in the Russian Federation, the
      federal law applies.
      (6) In the event of a contradiction between the federal law and a
      regulatory legal act of a subject of the Russian Federation issued in
      accordance with Part (4) of this Article, the regulatory legal act of the
      subject of the Russian Federation applies.
      Article 77 [State Power]

      (1) The system of state power bodies of the republics, territories,
      regions, federal cities, the autonomous region, autonomous areas are
      established by the subjects of the Russian Federation independently in
      accordance with the basic principles of the constitutional system of the
      Russian Federation and general principles of the organization of
      legislative and executive bodies of power as envisaged by the federal law.
      (2) Within the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the powers of
      the Russian Federation on issues within the joint jurisdiction of the
      Russian Federation and the subjects of the Russian Federation the federal
      bodies of executive power and bodies of executive power of the subjects of
      the Russian Federation forms the single system of executive power in the
      Russian Federation.
      Article 78 [State Officials]

      (1) To exercise their powers, the federal bodies of executive power may
      set up their own territorial structures and appoint respective officials.
      (2) By agreement with organs of executive power of the subjects of the
      Russian Federation, the federal organs of executive power may delegate to
      them part of their powers provided this does not contravene the
      Constitution or federal laws.
      (3) By agreement with the federal organs of executive power, organs of
      executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation may delegate
      part of their powers to them.
      (4) The President of the Russian Federation and the government of the
      Russian Federation shall, under the Constitution, exercise the authority
      of federal state power throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
      Article 79 [Inter-State Associations]
      The Russian Federation may participate in inter-state associations and
      delegate some of its powers to them in accordance with international
      agreements if this does not restrict human or civil rights and liberties
      or contravene the fundamentals of the constitutional system of the Russian
      Federation.
      Chapter 4 President of the Russian Federation

      Article 80 [Head of State]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation is the head of state.
      (2) The President is the guarantor of the Constitution, and of human and
      civil rights and freedoms. In accordance with the procedure established by
      the Constitution, he takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the
      Russian Federation, its independence and state integrity, and ensure
      concerted functioning and interaction of all bodies of state power.
      (3) The President of the Russian Federation defines the basic domestic and
      foreign policy guidelines of the state in accordance with the Constitution
      and federal laws.
      (4) The President of the Russian Federation as head of state represents
      the Russian Federation inside the country and in international relations.
      Article 81 [Term, Election]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation is elected for a term of four
      years by the citizens of the Russian Federation on the basis of general,
      equal and direct vote by secret ballot.
      (2) A citizen of the Russian Federation not younger than 35, who has
      resided in the Russian Federation for not less than 10 years, may be
      elected President of the Russian Federation.
      (3) No one person may hold the office of President of the Russian
      Federation for more than two terms in succession.
      (4) The procedure for electing the President of the Russian Federation is
      determined by federal law.
      Article 82 [Oath]

      (1) At his inauguration, the President of the Russian Federation takes the
      following oath to the people:
      "I vow, in the performance of my powers as the President of the Russian
      Federation to respect and protect the rights and freedoms of man and
      citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution, to protect the
      sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the state and to
      serve the people faithfully."
      (2) The oath is taken in a solemn atmosphere in the presence of members of
      the Council of the Federation, deputies of the House of Representatives
      [State Duma] and judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian
      Federation.
      Article 83 [Powers]
      The President of the Russian Federation shall:
      a) appoint Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation subject to
      consent of the House of Representatives [State Duma];
      b) have the right to preside over meetings of the Government of the
      Russian Federation;
      c) decide on resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation;
      d) introduce to the House of Representatives [State Duma] a candidature
      for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank of the
      Russian Federation; submit to the House of Representatives [State Duma]
      the proposal on relieving the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian
      Federation of his duties;
      e) appoint and dismiss deputy chairmen of the Government of the Russian
      Federation and federal ministers as proposed by the Chairman of the
      Government of the Russian Federation;
      f) submit to the Federation Council candidates for appointment to the
      office of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation,
      the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration
      Court of the Russian Federation as well as the candidate for
      Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation; submit to the Federation
      Council the
      proposal on relieving the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation of
      his duties; appoint the judges of other federal courts.
      g) form and head the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the
      status of which is determined by federal law;
      h) endorse the military doctrine of the Russian Federation;
      i) form the staff of the President of the Russian Federation;
      j) appoint and dismiss plenipotentiary representatives of the President of
      the Russian Federation;
      k) appoint and dismiss the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of the
      Russian Federation;
      l) appoint and recall, after consultations with the respective committees
      or commissions of the Federal Assembly, diplomatic representatives of the
      Russian Federation to foreign states and international organizations.
      Article 84 [Powers in Relation to Parliament]
      The President of the Russian Federation shall:
      a) call elections to the chambers of the House of Representatives [State
      Duma] in accordance with the Constitution and federal law;
      b) dissolve the House of Representatives [State Duma] in cases and under
      procedures envisaged by the Constitution;
      c) call a referendum under procedures established by federal
      constitutional law;
      d) introduce draft laws in the House of Representatives [State Duma];
      e) sign and publish federal laws;
      f) present annual messages to the Federal Assembly on the situation in the
      country and on basic directions of the internal and external policies of
      the state.
      Article 85 [Dispute Settlement]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation may use dispute-settlement
      procedures to settle differences between organs of state power of the
      Russian Federation and organs of state power of the subjects of the
      Russian Federation, and also between organs of state power of the subjects
      of the Russian Federation. If no decision is agreed upon, he may turn the
      dispute over for review by the respective court of law.
      (2) The President of the Russian Federation has the right to suspend acts
      by organs of executive power of the subjects of the Russian Federation if
      such acts contravene the Constitution and federal laws, the international
      obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights
      and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in appropriate court.
      Article 86 [Diplomacy]
      The President of the Russian Federation shall:
      a) supervise the conduct of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;
      b) conduct negotiations and sign international treaties of the Russian
      Federation;
      c) sign instruments of ratification;
      d) accept credentials and instruments of recall of diplomatic
      representatives accredited with him.
      Article 87 [Commander-in-Chief]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation is the Supreme
      Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
      (2) In the event of aggression against the Russian Federation or an
      immediate threat thereof, the President of the Russian Federation
      introduces martial law on the territory of the Russian Federation or in
      areas thereof with immediate notification thereof of the Federation
      Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma].
      Article 88 [State of Emergency]
      Under the circumstances and procedures envisaged by the
      Federal Constitutional Law, the President of the Russian Federation
      imposes a state of emergency on the territory of the Russian Federation or
      in areas thereof with immediate notification of the Federation Council and
      the House of Representatives [State Duma].
      Article 89 [Decorations, Pardon]
      The President of the Russian Federation shall:
      a) resolve issues of citizenship of the Russian Federation and of granting
      political asylum;
      b) award state decorations of the Russian Federation, confer honorary
      titles of the Russian Federation and top military ranks and top
      specialized titles;
      c) grant pardon.
      Article 90 [Decrees, Executive Orders]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation issues decrees and executive
      orders.
      (2) The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation are
      binding throughout the territory of the Russian Federation.
      (3) The decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation may
      not contravene the Constitution or federal laws.
      Article 91 [Immunity]
      The President of the Russian Federation possesses immunity.
      Article 92 [Term Limits]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation assumes his powers from the
      time he is sworn in and terminate his exercise of such powers with the
      expiry of his tenure of office from the time the newly-elected President
      of the Russian Federation is sworn in.
      (2) The powers of the President of the Russian Federation is terminated in
      the event of his resignation or sustained inability due to health to
      discharge his powers or in the event of impeachment. In such cases new
      elections of the President of the Russian Federation is held not later
      than three months after the early termination of the President's powers.
      (3) In all cases when the President of the Russian Federation is unable to
      perform his duties such duties are temporarily performed by the chairman
      of the Government of the Russian Federation. The acting president of the
      Russian Federation has no right to dissolve the House of Representatives
      [State Duma], call a referendum or make proposals on amendment or revision
      of the provisions of the Constitution.
      Article 93 [Impeachment]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation may be impeached by the
      Federation Council only on the basis of charges put forward against him of
      high treason or some other grave crime, confirmed by a ruling of the
      Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on the presence of indicia of
      crime in the President's actions and by a ruling of the Constitutional
      Court of the Russian Federation confirming that the procedure of bringing
      charges has been observed.
      (2) The ruling of the House of Representatives [State Duma] on putting
      forward charges and the decision of the Federation Council on impeachment
      of the President is passed by the votes of two-thirds of the total number
      in each of the chambers at the initiative of at least one-third of the
      deputies of the House of Representatives [State Duma] and in the presence
      of the opinion of a special commission formed by the House of
      Representatives [State Duma].
      (3) The decision of the Federation Council on impeaching the President of
      the Russian Federation is passed within three months of the charges being
      brought against the President by the House of Representatives [State
      Duma]. The charges against the President are considered to be rejected if
      the decision of the Federation Council is not passed.
      Chapter 5 Federal Assembly

      Article 94 [Supreme Legislative Body]
      The Federal Assembly -- Parliament of the Russian Federation -- is the
      supreme representative and legislative body of the Russian Federation.
      Article 95 [Two Chambers]

      (1) The Federal Assembly consists of two chambers -- the Federation
      Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma].
      (2) Two deputies from each subject of the Federation are members of
      Federation Council: one from the representative and one from the executive
      bodies of state authority.
      (3) The House of Representatives [State Duma] consists of 450 deputies.
      Article 96 [House of Representatives: State Duma]

      (1) The House of Representatives [State Duma] is elected for a term of
      four years.
      (2) The procedure for forming the Federation Council and the procedure for
      electing deputies to the House of Representatives [State Duma] is
      established by federal law.
      Article 97 [Eligibility]

      (1) Any citizen of the Russian Federation aged 21 and older who has the
      right to take part in elections may be elected deputy to the House of
      Representatives [State Duma].
      (2) One and the same person may not concurrently be a deputy to the
      Federation Council and to the House of Representatives [State Duma]. A
      deputy to the House of Representatives [State Duma] may not be a deputy to
      any other representative body of state power or bodies of local
      self-government.
      (3) The deputies to the House of Representatives [State Duma] work on a
      permanent professional basis. Deputies to the House of Representatives
      [State Duma] may not be employed in the civil service or engage in any
      activities for remuneration other than teaching, research or other
      creative activities.
      Article 98 [Immunity]

      (1) Deputies to the Federation Council and deputies to the House of
      Representatives [State Duma] possess immunity throughout their term in
      office. A deputy may not be detained, arrested, searched except when
      detained in the act of perpetrating a crime, and may not be subject to
      personal search except when such search is authorized by law to ensure the
      safety of other people.
      (2) The question of stripping a deputy of immunity is decided on the
      recommendation of the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation by the
      corresponding chamber of the Federal Assembly.
      Article 99 [Sessions]

      (1) The Federal Assembly is a permanent body.
      (2) The House of Representatives [State Duma] holds its first session on
      the 30th day after its election. The President of the Russian Federation
      may convene a session of the House of Representatives [State Duma] before
      this term.
      (3) The first session of the House of Representatives [State Duma] is
      opened by the oldest deputy.
      (4) From the start of the work of the new House of Representatives [State
      Duma] the powers of the previous House of Representatives [State Duma]
      cease.
      Article 100 [Separation of Chambers]

      (1) The Federation Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma]
      sit separately.
      (2) The sessions of the Federation Council and the House of
      Representatives [State Duma] are open. Each chamber has the right to hold
      closed sessions as envisaged by its rules.
      (3) The chambers may have joint sessions to hear the addresses of the
      President of the Russian Federation, addresses of the Constitutional Court
      of the Russian Federation and speeches by leaders of foreign states.
      Article 101 [Chairman]

      (1) The Federation Council elects from among its members the Chairman of
      the Federation Council and his deputies. The House of Representatives
      [State Duma] elects from among its members the Chairman of the House of
      Representatives [State Duma] and his deputies.
      (2) The Chairman of the Federation Council and his deputies, the Chairman
      of the House of Representatives [State Duma] and his deputies presides
      over the sessions and supervise the internal rules of the chamber.
      (3) The Federation Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma]
      form committees and commissions, exercise parliamentary supervision over
      issues within their jurisdiction and hold parliamentary hearings.
      (4) Each chamber adopts its own rules and solve questions of internal
      organization and work.
      (5) In order to exercise control over the federal budget the Federation
      Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma] form an Accounting
      Chamber, the membership and rules of order of which is determined by
      federal law.
      Article 102 [Jurisdiction of Federation Council]

      (1) The jurisdiction of the Federation Council includes: a) approval of
      changes of borders between the subjects of the Russian Federation;
      b) approval of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation on
      the introduction of martial law;
      c) approval of the decree of the President of the Russian Federation on
      the introduction of a state of emergency;
      d) making decisions on the possibility of the use of the Armed Forces of
      the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation;
      e) calling of elections of the President of the Russian Federation;
      f) impeachment of the President of the Russian Federation;
      g) the appointment of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian
      Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, and the Supreme
      Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation;
      h) the appointment to office and the removal from office of the
      Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation;
      i) the appointment to office and removal from office of the deputy
      Chairman of the Accounting Chamber and half of its staff of its auditors.
      (2) The Federation Council passes resolutions on the issues within its
      jurisdiction under the Constitution.
      (3) The decrees of the Federation Council are adopted by a majority of all
      deputies to the Federation Council unless otherwise provided for by the
      Constitution.
      Article 103 [Jurisdiction of the House of Representatives]

      (1) The jurisdiction of the House of Representatives [State Duma]
includes:
      a) granting consent to the President of the Russian Federation for the
      appointment of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation;
      b) decisions on confidence in the government of the Russian Federation;
      c) the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank of
      the Russian Federation;
      d) the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Accounting Chamber
      and half of its staff of auditors;
      e) the appointment and dismissal of the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights
      acting in accordance with the Federal Constitutional Law;
      f) granting amnesty;
      g) bringing charges against the President of the Russian Federation for
      his impeachment.
      (2) The House of Representatives [State Duma] adopts resolutions on the
      issues of its jurisdiction envisaged by the Constitution.
      (3) The resolutions of the House of Representatives [State Duma] are
      adopted by a majority of votes of all deputies of the House of
      Representatives [State Duma] unless otherwise provided for by the
      Constitution.
      Article 104 [Initiative]

      (1) The President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, the
      members to the Federation Council, the deputies to the House of
      Representatives [State Duma], the Government of the Russian Federation and
      the legislative (representative) bodies of the subjects of the Russian
      Federation have the right of legislative initiative. The Constitutional
      Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian
      Federation and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation
      also have the right of legislative initiative within their jurisdiction.
      (2) Draft laws are introduced in the House of Representatives [State
Duma].
      (3) The draft laws on the introduction or abolishing of taxes, exemptions
      from the payment thereof, on the issue of state loans, on changes in the
      financial obligations of the state and other draft laws providing for
      expenditures covered from the federal budget may be introduced to the
      House of Representatives [State Duma] only with a corresponding resolution
      by the Government of the Russian Federation.
      Article 105 [Majority]

      (1) Federal laws are passed by the House of Representatives [State Duma].
      (2) Federal laws are passed by a majority of votes of all deputies of the
      House of Representatives [State Duma] unless otherwise provided for by the
      Constitution.
      (3) Laws adopted by the House of Representatives [State Duma] are passed
      to the Federation Council for review within five days.
      (4) A federal law is considered passed by the Federation Council if more
      than half of its deputies vote for it or if within fourteen days it has
      not been considered by the Federation Council. In the event the Federation
      Council rejects the federal law, the chambers may set up a conciliatory
      commission to settle the differences, whereupon the federal law is again
      considered by the House of Representatives [State Duma].
      (5) In the event the House of Representatives [State Duma] disagrees with
      the decision of the Federation Council, the federal law is considered
      adopted if, in the second voting, at least two-thirds of the total number
      of deputies to the House of Representatives [State Duma] vote for it.
      Article 106 [Mandatory Consideration of Federation Council]
      The federal laws adopted by the House of Representatives [State Duma] are
      considered by the Federation Council on a mandatory basis if such laws
      deal with the issues of: a) the federal budget; b) federal taxes and
      levies;
      c) financial, monetary, credit and customs regulations and money emission;
      d) ratification and denunciation of international treaties of the Russian
      Federation;
      e) the status and protection of the state border of the Russian
Federation;
      f) war and peace.
      Article 107 [Signing and Publication]

      (1) An adopted federal law is sent to the President of the Russian
      Federation for signing and publication within five days.
      (2) The President of the Russian Federation shall, within fourteen days,
      sign a federal law and publish it.
      (3) If the President rejects a federal law within fourteen days since it
      was sent to him, the House of Representatives [State Duma] and the
      Federation Council again consider the law in accordance with the procedure
      established by the Constitution. If, during the second hearings, the
      federal law is approved in its earlier draft by a majority of not less
      than two thirds of the total number of deputies of the Federation Council
      and the House of Representatives [State Duma], it is signed by the
      President of the Russian Federation within seven days and published.
      Article 108 [Constitutional Laws]

      (1) Federal constitutional laws are passed on issues specified in the
      Constitution.
      (2) A federal constitutional law is considered adopted, if it has been
      approved by a majority of at least three quarters of the total number of
      deputies of the Federation Council and at least two thirds of the total
      number of deputies of the House of Representatives [State Duma]. The
      adopted federal constitutional law is signed by the President of the
      Russian Federation within fourteen days and published.
      Article 109 [Dissolution]

      (1) The House of Representatives [State Duma] may be dissolved by the
      President of the Russian Federation in cases stipulated in Articles 111
      and 117 of the Constitution.
      (2) In the event of the dissolution of the House of Representatives [State
      Duma], the President of the Russian Federation determines the date of
      elections so that the newly-elected House of Representatives [State Duma]
      convenes not later than four months since the time of dissolution.
      (3) The House of Representatives [State Duma] may not be dissolved on
      grounds provided for by Article 117 of the Constitution within one year
      after its election.
      (4) The House of Representatives [State Duma] may not be dissolved since
      the time it has brought accusations against the President of the Russian
      Federation and until a corresponding decision has been taken by the
      Federation Council.
      (5) The House of Representatives [State Duma] may not be dissolved during
      the period of the state of emergency or martial law throughout the
      territory of the Russian Federation, as well as within six months of the
      expiry of the term of office of the President of the Russian Federation.
      Chapter 6 The Government of the Russian Federation

      Article 110 [Executive Power]

      (1) Executive power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the
      Government of the Russian Federation.
      (2) The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of
      the Government of the Russian Federation, Deputy Chairmen of the
      Government and federal ministers.
      Article 111 [Chairman]

      (1) The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation is appointed
      by the President of the Russian Federation with consent of the House of
      Representatives [State Duma].
      (2) The proposal on the candidacy of the Chairman of the Government of the
      Russian Federation is made no later than two weeks after the inauguration
      of the newly-elected President of the Russian Federation or after the
      resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation or within one week
      after the rejection of the candidate by the House of Representatives
      [State Duma].
      (3) The House of Representatives [State Duma] considers the candidacy of
      the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation submitted by the
      President of the Russian Federation within one week after the nomination.
      (4) After the House of Representatives [State Duma] thrice
      rejects candidates for Chairman of the Government of the Russian
      Federation nominated by the President of the Russian Federation, the
      President of the Russian Federation appoints Chairman of the Government of
      the Russian Federation, dissolve the House of Representatives [State Duma]
      and call a new election.
      Article 112 [Cabinet]

      (1) The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation shall, not
      later than one week after appointment, submit to the President of the
      Russian Federation proposals on the structures of the federal bodies of
      executive power.
      (2) The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation proposes to
      the President of the Russian Federation candidates for the office of
      Deputy Chairmen of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal
      ministers.
      Article 113 [Guidelines]
      The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, in accordance
      with the Constitution, federal laws and decrees of the President of the
      Russian Federation determines the guidelines of the work of the Government
      of the Russian Federation and organizes its work.
      Article 114 [Powers]

      (1) The Government of the Russian Federation shall:
      a) develop and submit the federal budget to the House of Representatives
      [State Duma] and ensure compliance therewith; submit a report on the
      execution of the federal budget to the House of Representatives [State
      Duma];
      b) ensure the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform
      financial, credit and monetary policy;
      c) ensure the implementation in the Russian Federation of a uniform state
      policy in the field of culture, science, education, health, social
      security and ecology;
      d) manage federal property;
      e) adopt measures to ensure the country's defense, state security and the
      implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation;
      f) implement measures to ensure legality, the rights and freedoms of
      citizens, protect property and public law and order and control crime;
      g) exercise any other powers vested in it by the Constitution, federal
      laws and the decrees of the President of the Russian Federation.
      (2) The work of the Government of the Russian Federation is regulated by
      federal constitutional law.
      Article 115 [Decrees, Executive Orders]

      (1) On the basis of and pursuant to the Constitution, federal laws and
      normative decrees of the President of the Russian Federation the
      Government of the Russian Federation issue decrees and orders and ensure
      their implementation thereof.
      (2) The decrees and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation are
      binding throughout the Russian Federation.
      (3) The decrees and executive orders of the Government of the Russian
      Federation may be repealed by the President of the Russian Federation if
      they contravene the Constitution, federal laws and the decrees of the
      President of the Russian Federation.
      Article 116 [Term Limits]
      The Government of the Russian Federation lays down its powers before the
      newly-elected President of the Russian Federation.
      Article 117 [Resignation]

      (1) The Government of the Russian Federation may hand in its resignation
      which may be accepted or rejected by the President of the Russian
      Federation.
      (2) The President of the Russian Federation may take a decision
      about the resignation of the Government of the Russian Federation.
      (3) The House of Representatives [State Duma] may express non-confidence
      in the Government of the Russian Federation. The non-confidence resolution
      is approved by a simple majority of deputies in the House of
      Representatives [State Duma]. In the event the House of Representatives
      [State Duma] again expresses non-confidence in the Government of the
      Russian Federation within three months, the President of the Russian
      Federation announces the resignation of the Government or dissolve the
      House of Representatives [State Duma].
      (4) The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation may put the
      question of confidence in the Government of the Russian Federation before
      the House of Representatives [State Duma]. In the case of a non-confidence
      vote by the House of Representatives [State Duma], the President decides
      within seven days about the resignation of the Government of the Russian
      Federation or about the dissolution of the House of Representatives [State
      Duma] and call a new election.
      (5) If the Government of the Russian Federation resigns or lays down its
      powers, it shall, following instructions by the President of the Russian
      Federation, continue working until the formation of a new government of
      the Russian Federation.
      Chapter 7 Judiciary

      Article 118 [Administration of Justice]

      (1) Justice in the Russian Federation is administered only by law courts.
      (2) Judiciary power is exercised to constitutional, civil, administrative
      and criminal process.
      (3) The judiciary system of the Russian Federation is established by the
      Constitution and the federal constitutional law. The creation of
      extraordinary courts is forbidden.
      Article 119 [Eligibility]
      Citizens of the Russian Federation aged 25 and older, holding a law degree
      and having worked in the law profession for at least five years may become
      judges The federal law may establish additional requirements for judges in
      the courts of the Russian Federation.
      Article 120 [Endependence of Judges]

      (1) Judges are independent and obey only the Constitution and the federal
      law.
      (2) A court of law, having established the illegality of an act of
      government or any other body, passes a ruling in accordance with law.
      Article 121 [Termination of Office]

      (1) Judges may not be replaced.
      (2) A judge may not have his powers terminated or suspended except under
      procedures and on grounds established by federal law.
      Article 122 [Immunity]

      (1) Judges possess immunity.
      (2) Criminal proceedings may not be brought against a judge except as
      provided f or by federal law.
      Article 123 [Publicity]

      (1) All trials in all law courts are open. The hearing of a case can be in
      camera in cases provided by the federal law.
      (2) Hearing of criminal cases in law courts in absentia are not allowed
      except the cases provided for by the federal law.
      (3) The trial is conducted on an adversarial and equal basis.
      (4) In cases stipulated by federal law trials is held by jury.
      Article 124 [Financing]
      Law courts are financed only out of the federal budget and
      financing ensure full and independent administration of justice in
      accordance with federal law.
      Article 125 [Constitutional Court]

      (1) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19
      judges.
      (2) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on request by the
      President of the Russian Federation, the House of Representatives [State
      Duma], one-fifth of the members of the Federation Council or deputies of
      the House of Representatives [State Duma], the Government of the Russian
      Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and Supreme
      Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, bodies of legislative and
      executive power of subjects of the Russian Federation resolve cases about
      compliance with the Constitution of:
      a) federal laws, normative acts of the President of the Russian
      Federation, the Federation Council, House of Representatives [State Duma]
      and the Government of the Russian Federation;
      b) republican constitutions, charters, as well as laws and other normative
      acts of subjects of the Russian Federation published on issues pertaining
      to the jurisdiction of bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and
      joint jurisdiction of bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and
      bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation;
      c) agreements between bodies of state power of the Russian Federation and
      bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation, agreements
      between bodies of state power of subjects of the Russian Federation;
      d) international agreements of the Russian Federation that have not
      entered into force.
      (3) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation resolves disputes
      over jurisdiction:
      a) between the federal state bodies;
      b) between state bodies of the Russian Federation and state bodies of the
      subjects of the Russian Federation;
      c) between supreme state bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation.
      (4) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, proceeding from
      complaints about violation of constitutional rights and freedoms of
      citizens and requests from courts reviews the constitutionality of the law
      applied or due to be applied in a specific case in accordance with
      procedures established by federal law.
      (5) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on request by the
      President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council, House of
      Representatives [State Duma], the Government of the Russian Federation,
      legislative bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation interprets the
      Constitution.
      (6) Acts and their provisions deemed unconstitutional loose force thereof;
      international agreements of the Russian Federation may not be enforced and
      applied if they violate the Constitution.
      (7) The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on request of the
      Federation Council rules on compliance with established procedures when
      charging the President of the Russian Federation with state treason or
      other grave crime.
      Article 126 [Supreme Court]
      The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the highest judiciary body
      on civil, criminal, administrative and other matters triable by general
      jurisdiction courts, and effects judiciary supervision over their activity
      in line with federal procedural forms and offers explanations on judicial
      practice issues.
      Article 127 [Supreme Arbitration Court]
      The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the highest
      judiciary body resolving economic disputes and other cases considered by
      arbitration courts, and carries out judicial
      supervision over their activity in line with federal legal procedures and
      offers explanations on questions of judiciary practice.
      Article 128 [Appointment]

      (1) Judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, of the
      Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, of the Supreme Arbitration Court
      of the Russian Federation are appointed by the Federation Council
      following nomination by the President of the Russian Federation.
      (2) Judges of other federal courts are appointed by the President of the
      Russian Federation in accordance with procedures established by federal
      law.
      (3) The powers, and procedure of the formation and activities of the
      Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the
      Russian Federation and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian
      Federation and other federal courts are established by federal
      constitutional law.
      Article 129 [Prosecutor]

      (1) The Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation is a single
      centralized system in which lower prosecutors are subordinated to higher
      prosecutors and the Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation.
      (2) The Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation is appointed to his
      post and relieved from the post by the Federation Council on nomination by
      the President of the Russian Federation.
      (3) Prosecutors of subjects of the Russian Federation are appointed by the
      Prosecutor-General of the Russian Federation after consultations with its
      subjects.
      (4) Other prosecutors are appointed by the Prosecutor-General of the
      Russian Federation.
      (5) The powers, organization and working procedure for the Prosecutor's
      Office of the Russian Federation are determined by federal law.
      Chapter 8 Local Self-Government

      Article 130 [Local Self-Government]

      (1) Local self-government in the Russian Federation ensures independent
      solution by the population of local issues, the ownership, use and
      disposal of municipal property.
      (2) Local self-government is exercised by the citizens through
      referendums, elections and forms of expression of their will, through
      elected and other bodies of local self-government.
      Article 131 [Localities]

      (1) Local self-government is exercised in the cities, rural areas and
      other localities taking into account historical and other local
      traditions. The structure of bodies of local self-government is determined
      by the population independently.
      (2) The borders of territorial entities under local self-government are
      changed only with the consent of their population.
      Article 132 [Powers]

      (1) The bodies of local self-government independently manage municipal
      property, form, approve and execute the local budget, establish local
      taxes and levies, ensure law and order and solve any other local issues.
      (2) The bodies of local self-government may be invested under law with
      certain state powers with the transfer of material and financial resources
      required to exercise such powers. The exercise of the powers transferred
      is supervised by the state.
      Article 133 [Compensation]
      Local self-government in the Russian Federation is guaranteed by the right
      to judicial protection and compensation for any additional expenses
      arising from the decisions passed by the
      bodies of state power, and the ban on the restrictions of the rights of
      local self-government established by the Constitution and federal laws.
      Chapter 9 Constitutional Amendments and Revisions

      Article 134 [Amendments]
      Proposals on amendments and revision of constitutional provisions may be
      made by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council,
      the House of Representatives [State Duma], the Government of the Russian
      Federation, legislative (representative) bodies of the subjects of the
      Russian Federation as well as groups of deputies numbering not less than
      one-fifth of the total number of deputies of the Federation Council or the
      House of Representatives [State Duma].
      Article 135 [Restrictions]

      (1) The provisions of Chapters 1, 2 and 9 of the Constitution may not be
      revised by the Federal Assembly.
      (2) In the event a proposal to revise any provisions in Chapters 1, and 9
      of the Constitution is supported by three-fifths of the total number of
      deputies of the Federation Council and the House of Representatives [State
      Duma], a Constitutional Assembly is convened in accordance with the
      federal constitutional law.
      (3) The Constitutional Assembly may either confirm the inviolability of
      the Constitution or develop a new draft of the Constitution which is
      adopted by two-thirds of the total number of deputies to the
      Constitutional Assembly or submitted to popular voting. The Constitution
      is considered adopted during such poll if more than half of its
      participants have voted for it, provided more than half of the electorate
      have taken part in the poll.
      Article 136 [Majority]
      Amendments to Chapters 3 to 8 of the Constitution are adopted in
      accordance with the procedures envisaged for the adoption of a federal
      constitutional law and come into force following the approval thereof by
      no less than two-thirds of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
      Article 137 [Republics, Regions, Territories]

      (1) Changes to Article 65 of the Constitution which determines the
      composition of the Russian Federation, are made on the basis of the
      federal constitutional law on admission to the Russian Federation and the
      formation within the Russian Federation of a new subject and on a change
      of the constitutional-legal status of the subject of the Russian
      Federation.
      (2) In the event of a change in the name of the republic, territory,
      region, federal cities, autonomous region and autonomous area, the new
      name of the subject of the Russian Federation is included in Article 65 of
      the Constitution.
      [Part II] Second Part: Concluding and Transitional Provisions

      Section 1

      (1) The Constitution comes into force from the day of its official
      publication on the basis of the results of a nationwide vote.
      (2) The election day, December 12, 1993 is considered the day of adoption
      of the Constitution.
      (3) Simultaneously, the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian
      Federation - Russia, adopted 12 April, 1978, with the changes and
      amendments that followed, ceases to be valid.
      (4) In the event of a situation of nonconformity between the Constitution
      and the Federal Treaty - the Agreement on the Delineation of Jurisdiction
      and Powers between the Federal Bodies of State Power of the Russian
      Federation and the Bodies
      of State Power of the Sovereign Republics making up the Russian
      Federation, the Agreement on the Delineation of Jurisdiction and Powers
      between the Federal Bodies of State Power of the Russian Federation and
      Bodies of State Power of the territories, regions, the cities of Moscow
      and St. Petersburg of the Russian Federation, the Agreement on the
      Delineation of Jurisdiction and Powers between the Federal Bodies of State
      Power of the Russian Federation and Bodies of State power of the
      autonomous region, autonomous areas making up the Russian Federation, and
      similarly other agreements between the Federal Bodies of State Power of
      the Russian Federation and Bodies of State Power of the subjects of the
      Russian Federation, agreements between Bodies of State Power of the
      subjects of the Russian Federation, the provisions of the Constitution
      apply.
      Section 2
      Laws and other legal acts in effect on the territory of the Russian
      Federation until the enactment of this Constitution are enforced in so far
      as they do not contravene the Constitution.
      Section 3
      The President of the Russian Federation, elected in accordance with the
      Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation - Russia, from
      the day this Constitution takes effect exercises the powers set down in
      the Constitution until the end of his term for which he was elected.
      Section 4
      The Council of Ministers - the Government of the Russian Federation from
      the day this Constitution takes effect assumes the rights, duties and
      responsibilities of the Government of the Russian Federation set down in
      the Constitution and in future is designated as the Government of the
      Russian Federation.
      Section 5

      (1) Courts in the Russian Federation exercise the right to administer
      justice in accordance with their powers as set down in this Constitution.
      (2) After the Constitution takes effect the judges of all courts of the
      Russian Federation preserve their powers until the end of their terms for
      which they were elected. Vacancies are filled in accordance with the
      procedures set down in this Constitution.
      Section 6

      (1) Until the adoption of a federal law setting forth the procedures for
      trial by jury, the prior procedure for conducting trials is retained.
      (2) Until the enforcement of criminal-procedural legislation of the
      Russian Federation in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution,
      the prior procedures of the arrest, custody and detention of individuals
      suspected of committing crimes is maintained.
      Section 7
      The Federal Council and the House of Representatives [State Duma] of the
      first convocation is elected for a two-year term.
      Section 8
      The Federation Council holds its first session on the 30th day after
      election. The first session of the Federation Council is opened by the
      President of the Russian Federation.
      Section 9

      (1) A deputy of the House of Representatives [State Duma] of the first
      convocation may simultaneously be a member of the Government of the
      Russian Federation. Deputies of the House of Representatives [State Duma]
      - members of the Government of the Russian Federation - are not covered by
      the provisions of this Constitution concerning deputies' immunity from
      responsibility for their activities (or their lack of activity) connected
      with the execution of their official duties.
      (2) Deputies of the Federation Council of the first convocation exercise
      their powers on a temporary basis.